Análisis cultural hermenéutico
The hermeneutical cultural analysis is a methodological proposal that goes from the analogical-iconic hermeneutics to the cultural analysis with the purpose of creatin study objects in which cultural dimension attachs importance. This proposal was born in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, from the professor Jorge Enrique Gonzalez's book titled Análisis cultural hermenéutico. Contributions of the analogical-iconic hermeneutics to the cultural analysis; edited by the Argentinean publishing house Hermeneutical Circle in 2016.
This proposal results from the critical reading of the alleged cultural analysis, claiming that the cultural analysis has to be a criticism of the culture and to be situated geopolitically. Latin America appears as the place of emergence of cultural criticism in general; this is here where it is situating the debate about hermeneutics.
The hermeneutics is developing from the Charles Sanders Peirce's paradigm, from which Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico – UNAM Professor Mauricio Beuchot's work seems fundamental to follow the analogical-iconic hermeneutics way. To Beuchot, this is "a science according to which the analogy corresponds to the iconic signal of this eminent semiotic". In this sense, it seems necessary to continue Paul Ricoeur's work on metaphorical hermeneutics, without forgetting the interpretation given by the metonymic way. That is why the way to follow could be the analogical-iconic hermeneutics, because it allows dealing both the metaphoric and the metonymic.
Considering that this proposal forms part of the Human and Social Sciences field, we have to think about the cultural paradigm. Jorge Enrique Gonzalez explains that the analogical-iconic hermeneutics could enrich this paradigm, because it can create connections between the political and the economic and social dimension of the culture in general.
To create a link between the implementation of the analogical-iconic hermeneutics and the cultural analysis and its effects on the actualization of the cultural paradigm, we have to precise the hermeneutical fundamentals of the cultural analysis. For that, the book's author develops six basic categories composing the hermeneutical basics of this method, that is to say: subjectivity, corporeality, linguistics, temporality, aesthetics, and ethics.
The hermeneutical basics are transposed in others Human and Social Sciences methods, to open the debate. These Sciences entered, during the last years, in the methodological debate, eternal problematic. One of the disciplines that have opted for the hermeneutics as an interpretation way was the Psychoanalysis, as did Psychology, and less evidently, the Politics.
Other disciplines got friendly with the hermeneutics in order to avoid a unilateral way. This is the case of the History and its design to not be only historiographical. Moreover, they explored the double hermeneutics and the cultural as praxis from Sociology (Anthony Giddens ; Zygmunt Bauman); the deep hermeneutics from communication and mass industry studies (John Brookshire Thompson); the reflexive hermeneutics from cultural Sociology (Jeffrey Alexander); the diatopic hermeneutics with the work of Boaventura de Sousa Santos linked with the Human Rights Declaration; the pluritopic hHermeneutics from the postcolonial studies (Modernity group / Coloniality); the dense description from the Anthropology (Clifford Geertz); the symbol and the myth from the philosophical Anthropology and, to finish, the implementation of hermeneutics in Law, Archeology and Education; that shows this fecundity as way of interpretation and analysis.
After all, Jorge Enrique Gonzalez, according Peirce's iconicity, relies on cultural models, heuristic tool which was at once studied in different fields of knowledge and remains marginalized. The rescue of this concept depends on the creation of an analogical model which permits the researcher to proceed between the abstract and the concrete by the analogical. The cultural models, thanks to the analogical-iconic hermeneutics, permit to comprehend the cultures creating models (systematic elements of the action) allowing the understanding of their social process, without falling in the prediction or the determination, but giving tools to interpret cultural phenomenon.